Based on the use of mobile phones by students in 17 colleges and universities in Gansu Province, to explore the dependence of university students on mobile phones, the impact on learning effect and the correlation of health quality, to provide prevention and improve the learning effect and improve health quality. Methods: Randomly conducted a self-made questionnaire survey on students from 17 colleges and universities in Gansu Province. A total of 1966 valid questionnaires were collected. SPSS 22.0 was used to perform simple descriptive statistical analysis, multiple responses, variance test analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The survey results show that 92.32% of college students are dependent on mobile phones, and the average daily mobile phone use duration is more than 6 hours, accounting for 63.02%. This has a great influence on college students ’mobile phone addiction; and 79.76% of college students fall asleep. After 11 o'clock, 87.69% of college students are used to playing mobile phones before going to bed, 66.38% sleep less than 8 hours, 60.02% sleep between 6-7 hours, whether they play mobile phones before bed and whether they fall asleep to a certain extent. It determines the sleep time and quality of sleep. Conclusion: Mobile phones are both good and bad for college students, but the use of mobile phones is unavoidable, so this article aims to encourage college students to use mobile phones properly, so as not to develop a mobile phone addiction, ensure adequate sleep, and devote themselves to learning with a full spirit.