Recent research suggests that the Big Five personality traits are important determinants of attitudes towards migrants in western countries. Far fewer studies, however, have investigated the extent to which this framework travels to non-western world. China is in the process of new urbanization construction, and it is necessary to understand how rural migrants are treated. Based on the data of Netizen Social Consciousness Survey 2018, this article evaluates the relationship between personality traits and attitudes towards rural migrants among 4902 urban residents across China, and finds that agreeableness is strongly related to pro-attitudes and neuroticism is strongly related to con-attitudes. The results confirm that some personality traits are associated with attitudes towards rural migrants, beyond the effect of demographic, socio-economic, and ideology predictors. This research helps to explain the micro-foundations that shape individual attitudes towards migrants.